The human brain comprises of two hemispheres and four lobes. The lobes are named as frontal, temporal, occipital and parietal. Cerebellum and the brain stem are also included in the parts of the brain. Damage to different parts of the brain result in different kinds of disabilities that may affect the individual for a life time.
Damage to the Frontal Lobe
If an individual suffers damage to any part of the frontal lobe, he or she may experience the following problems:
- Paralysis of various body parts
- Problems remembering the order of steps in a sequence
- Flexible thinking may be lost
- Mood swings may occur frequently and their personality may change
- The person may face difficulty while interacting with others
- Inability to focus on a task, loss of problem solving ability and loss of the ability to speak
Damage to the Temporal Lobe
Hearing, memory, visual perceptions and categorizing of objects are some of the functions of the temporal lobe. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in the following disabilities:
- Difficulty while recognizing faces called Prosopagnosia
- Difficulty while focusing attention to something that the individual is doing
- Inability to talk about some object or identify it
- The sexual behavior may increase or decrease
- An increase in aggressive behavior
Damage to the Occipital Lobe
This lobe is specialized in vision. Damage to it can result in the following disabilities:
- The sight of the individual may be patchy. There may be difficulty in finding items
- Hallucinations, visual illusions, word blindness and an inability to identify colors
- Inability to identify drawn objects, or the movement of an object and difficulty while reading and writing
Damage to the Parietal Lobe
Damage to the parietal lobe can cause:
- An inability to concentrate visual attention, inability to concentrate at an object at a time
- Inability to produce words from memory while writing
- Difficulty to discriminate between left and right
- Problems with self-care may arise
- Difficulty while coordinating movements of the hands and eyes
Damage to the Brain Stem
Damage to the brainstem results in:
- Problems in breathing and controlling respiration rate
- Difficulty swallowing food or liquid
- Faulty perception of the surroundings
- Inability to balance and move normally
- Dizziness, nausea and sleeping difficulties
Damage to the Cerebellum
Damage to cerebellum results in:
- Difficulty coordinating movements
- Inability to walk, extend arm or grasp an object
- Continuous tremors, dizziness and incoherent speech
In case there is interruption of the blood supply to the brain, death of the individual or paralysis of one side of the body may occur. Significant nerve damage can result in distortions of the face and twisted limbs.
Spinal Cord Injuries
The brain may be unable to send and receive messages from the injured spinal cord which results in impairment in physical movement. Cuts that are partial also result in behavioral changes. Damage to different sections of the spinal cord results in different disabilities. These disabilities are:
- Difficulty coughing and breathing without mechanical dependence resulting in extreme dependency on life-support systems. This dependency also affects the internal organs.
- Arm and leg movement may be impaired. The movement of the lower trunk also gets affected at times. Loss of control of fingers may arise.
- Damage to vertebras of thoracic or lumbar region results in lower limb paralysis.
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